A Random

A.1 Random Sentences

The full list of random sentences used by pata.physics.wtf for the top and bottom banners on each page (see screenshot 10.1).

A.2 Heisenberg Quote

The overly forceful insistence on the difference between scientific and artistic cognition quite likely derives from the incorrect notion that concepts are firmly attached to ‘real objects’, as if words had a completely clear and definite meaning in their relationship to reality and as if an accurate sentence, constructed from those words, could deliver an intended ‘objective’ factual situation to a more or less absolute degree. But we know, after all, that language too only grasps and shapes reality by turning it into ideas, by idealizing it. Language, too, approaches reality with specific mental forms about which we do not know right away which part of reality they can comprehend and shape. The question about ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ may indeed be rigorously posed and settled within an idealization, but not in relation to reality. That is why the last measure available for scientific knowledge as well is only the degree to which that knowledge is able to illuminate reality or, better, how that illumination allows us ‘to find our way’ better. And who could question that the spiritual content of a work of art too illumines reality for us and makes it translucent? One must come to terms with the fact that only through the process of cognition itself can we determine what we are to understand by ‘cognition’. That is why any genuine philosophy, too, stands on the threshold between science and poetry.

(Heisenberg 1942)

A.3 Digital Humanities Methodology Field Map

The full Field map of digital humanities: emerging methods and genres by Burdick et al. (2012).

A.4 Penn Treebank

The full list of POS tags mentioned in chapter 6.2.2 (Marcus, Santorini, and Marcinkiewicz 1993).

Coordinating conjunction
Cardinal number
Existential there
Foreign word
Preposition/subordinating conjunction
Adjective, comparative
Adjective, superlative
List item marker
Noun, singular or mass
Noun, plural
Proper noun, singular
Proper noun, plural
Possessive ending
Personal pronoun
Possessive pronoun
Adverb, comparative
Adverb, superlative
Symbol (mathematical or scientific)
Verb, base form
Verb, past tense
Verb, gerund/present particle
Verb, past particle
Verb, non-3rd ps. sing. present
Verb, 3rd ps. sing. present
Possessive wh-pronoun
Pound sign
Dollar sign
Sentence-final punctuation
Colon, semi-colon
Left bracket character
Right bracket character
Straight double quote
Left open single quote
Left open double quote
Right close single quote
Right close double quote

A.5 Thinking computers

  1. Can computers think?

    • Can computers have free will?

    • Can computers have emotions?

    • Can computers be creative?

    • Can computers understand arithmetic?

    • Can computers draw analogies?

    • Can computers be persons?

    • Is the brain a computer?

    • Can computers reason scientifically?

    • Are computers inherently disabled?

    • Should we pretend that computers will never be able to think?

    • Does God prohibit computers from thinking?

  2. Can the Turing test determine whether computers can think?

    • Is failing the test decisive?

    • Is passing the test decisive?

    • If a simulated intelligence passes, is it intelligent?

    • Have any machines passed the test?

    • Is the test, behaviouraly or operationally construed, a legitimate intelligence test?

    • Is the test, as a source of inductive evidence, a legitimate intelligence test?

    • Is the neo-Turing test a legitimate intelligence test?

    • Does the imitation game determine whether a computer can think?

    • Can the Loebner Prize stimulate the study of intelligence?

    • Other Turing test arguments

  3. Can physical symbol systems think?

    • Does thinking require a body?

    • Is the relation between hardware and software similar to that between human brains and minds?

    • Can physical symbol systems learn as humans do?

    • Can the elements of thinking be represented in discrete symbolic form?

    • Can symbolic representations account for human thinking?

    • Does the situated action paradigm show that computers can’t think?

    • Can physical symbol systems think dialectically?

    • Can a symbolic knowledge base represent human understanding?

    • Do humans use rules as physical symbol systems do?

    • Does mental processing rely on heuristic search?

    • Do physical symbol systems play chess as humans do?

    • Other physical system arguments

  4. Can Chinese Rooms think?

    • Do humans, unlike computers, have intrinsic intentionality?

    • Is biological naturalism valid?

    • Can computers cross the syntax-semantics barrier?

    • Can learning machines cross the syntax-semantics barrier?

    • Can brain simulators think?

    • Can robots think?

    • Can a combination robot/brain simulator think?

    • Can the Chinese Room, considered as a total system, think?

    • Do Chinese Rooms instantiate programs?

    • Can an internalized Chinese Room think?

    • Can translations occur between the internalized Chinese Room and the internalizing English speaker?

    • Can computers have the right causal powers?

    • Is strong AI a valid category?

    • Other Chinese Room arguments

  5. Can connectionist networks think?

    • Are connectionist networks like human neural networks?

    • Do connectionist networks follow rules?

    • Are connectionist networks vulnerable to the arguments against physical symbol systems?

    • Does the subsymbolic paradigm offer a valid account of connectionism?

    • Can connectionist networks exhibit systematicity?

    • Other connectionist arguments

  6. Can computers think in images?

    • Can images be realistically be represented in computer arrays?

    • Can computers represent the analog properties of images?

    • Can computers recognize Gestalts?

    • Are images less fundamental than propositions?

    • Is image psychology a valid approach to mental processing?

    • Are images quasi-pictorial representations?

    • Other imagery arguments

  7. Do computers have to be conscious to think?

    • Can computers be conscious?

    • Is consciousness necessary for thought?

    • Is the consciousness requirement solipsistic?

    • Can higher-order representations produce consciousness?

    • Can functional states generate consciousness?

    • Does physicalism show that computers can be conscious?

    • Does the connection principle show that consciousness is necessary for thought?

  8. Are thinking computers mathematically possible?

    • Is mechanistic philosophy valid?

    • Does Gödel’s theorem show that machines can’t think?

    • Does Gödel’s theorem show that machines can’t be conscious?

    • Do mathematical theorems like Gödel’s show that computers are intrinsically limited?

    • Does Gödel’s theorem show that mathematical insight is non-algorithmic?

    • Can automata think?

    • Is the Lucas argument dialectical?

    • Can improved machines beat the Lucas argument?

    • Is the use of consistency in the Lucas argument problematic?

    • Other Lucas arguments

(Horn 2009)

A.6 Jarry’s Writing

A list of Jarry’s works in chronological order with their original titles copied from the French Wikipedia entry on Jarry (“Alfred Jarry” n.d.).


  • Les Antliaclastes (1886–1888) poems, reprinted in Ontogénie

  • La Seconde Vie ou Macaber (1888) reprinted in Les Minutes de sable mémorial

  • Onénisme ou les Tribulations de Priou (1888) first version of Ubu cocu

  • Les Alcoolisés (1890) reprinted in les Les Minutes de sable mémorial

  • Visions actuelles et futures (1894)

  • “Haldernablou” (1894) reprinted in les Les Minutes de sable mémorial

  • “Acte unique” from César-Antéchrist (1894)

  • Les Minutes de sable mémorial (1894) poems

  • César Antéchrist (1895)

  • Ubu roi (1896, version of 1888)

  • L’Autre Alceste (1896)

  • Paralipomènes d’Ubu (1896)

  • Le Vieux de la montagne (1896)

  • Les Jours et les Nuits (1897), novel

  • Ubu cocu ou l’Archéoptéryx (1897)

  • L’Amour en visites (1897, publié en 1898) poems

  • Gestes et opinions du docteur Faustroll, pataphysicien (achevé en 1898, published in 1911) novel

  • Petit Almanach (1898)

  • L’Amour absolu (1899)

  • Ubu enchaîné (1899, published in 1900)

  • Messaline (1900)

  • Almanach illustré du Père Ubu (1901)

  • “Spéculations”, in La Revue Blanche (1901)

  • Le Surmâle (1901, publié en 1902) novel

  • “Gestes” in La Revue Blanche (1901) published in 1969 with “Spéculations” in La Chandelle verte.

  • L’Objet aimé (1903)

  • “Le 14 Juillet” in Le Figaro (1904)

  • Pantagruel (1905 opéra-bouffe by Rabelais staged in 1911, music by Claude Terrasse)

  • Ubu sur la Butte (1906)

  • Par la taille (1906) opérette

  • Le Moutardier du pape (1906, publié en 1907) opéra-bouffe

  • Albert Samain (souvenirs) (1907)

Publications Post-Mortem

  • La Dragonne (1907, published in 1943)

  • Spéculations (1911)

  • Pieter de Delft (1974) opéra-comique

  • Jef (1974) play

  • Le Manoir enchanté (1974) opéra-bouffe staged in 1905

  • L’Amour maladroit (1974) opérette

  • Le Bon Roi Dagobert (1974) opéra-bouffe

  • Léda (1981) opérette-bouffe

  • Siloques. Superloques. Soliloques Et Interloques De Pataphysique (2001) texts

  • Paralipomènes d’Ubu/Salle Ubu (2010) livre d’artiste

  • Ubu marionnette (2010) livre d’artiste


  • La ballade du vieux marin (1893, after The ancient mariner by Coleridge)

  • Les silènes (1900, translation of German play by Christian Dietrich Grabbe)

  • Olalla (1901, novel by Stevenson)

  • La papesse Jeanne (1907, translation of Greek book by d’Emmanuel Rhoïdès)


  • Écho de Paris

  • L’Art de Paris

  • Essais d’art libre

  • Le Mercure de France

  • La Revue Blanche

  • Le Livre d’art

  • La Revue d’art

  • L’Omnibus de Corinthe

  • Renaissance latine

  • Les Marges

  • La Plume

  • L’Œil

  • Le Canard sauvage

  • Le Festin d’Ésope

  • Vers et prose

  • Poésia

  • Le Critique

A.7 Leary’s Tables

Reproductive Blocked Reproductive Creator Creative Creator Creative Blocked
The routine, well-socialised person who experiences only in terms of what he has been taught and who produces only what has been produced before. The innovating performer who experiences only in terms of the available categories but has learned to manipulate these categories in novel combinations. The person who experiences directly outside the limits of ego and labels, and who has learned to develop new models of communications, or who can manipulate familiar categories in novel combinations or who can let natural modes develop under his nurture. The person who experiences uniquely and sensitively outside of game concepts (either by choice or helplessly by inability) but who is unable to communicate or uninterested in communicating these experiences outside the conventional manner.
Reproductive Performer Creative Performer Reproductive Performer
Reproductive Experience Creative Experience
Table A.1 – Leary’s four types of creativity
Reproductive Blocked Reproductive Creator Creative Creator Creative Blocked
Unimaginative, incompetent hack. Reliable nihilist, insensitive, unsuccessful innovator whose shock value changes to morbid curiosity as fads of performance change. The mad creative genius, the undiscovered far-out crackpot creator who is recognised by later generations as a creative giant. Psychotic, religious crank, eccentric who uses conventional forms for expressing mystical convictions.
Competent, responsible, reliable worker. Bold initiator who wins game recognitions but whose fame crumbles as fads of performance change. The truly creative giant recognised by his own age and the ages to come. Solid, reliable person with a ‘deep streak’.
Reproductive Performer Creative Performer Reproductive Performer
Reproductive Experience Creative Experience
Table A.2 – Leary’s social labels to describe the types of creativity


“Alfred Jarry.” n.d. Wikipedia. link.

Burdick, Anne, Johanna Drucker, Peter Lunefeld, Todd Presner, and Jeffrey Schnapp. 2012. Digital Humanities. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.

Marcus, Mitchell P, Beatrice Santorini, and Mary Ann Marcinkiewicz. 1993. “Building a Large Annotated Corpus of English: The Penn Treebank.” Computational Linguistics 19 (2).